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First Aid for Sport Injuries

Sport related-injuries mostly occur when engaging in a team sport like football, volleyball, and basketball. Clearly, there are many possible types of sport injuries and before seeking professional medical help, first aid treatment is vital since it can prevent further injury or damage. Common sport injuries are divided as below:


Sprains: an injury to ligament caused by too much stretching, sudden force or a sharp twist. Symptoms include pain, swelling around the injured area, and being unable to fully move the joint. Early stages of treatment involve resting the injured or sore area. Apply a cold pack immediately or within 24 hours, and wrap it with an elastic bandage. To reduce swelling and promote healing, elevate the injured or sore area on pillows. After 72 hours, place the heat pack on top of the injured area.
Dislocation: it takes place when a bone slips out of its normal position due to a traumatic force pushing the bones apart. In addition to dislocation, there may be a broken bone, and torn muscle. As soon as the injury occurs, do not reposition the bone by yourself. The dislocated parts should not be moved, a cast or a compression bandage may be required.  Apply cold pack immediately or within 24 hours. Elevate and support the injured area above the level of the heart.  After 72 hours, use a heat pad to relax injured area.
Bruise: when the blood vessels lying under the skin are damaged, leading to internal bleeding into the surrounding tissue and causing skin discoloration.  We call it a bruise, which is caused by or a bump or a fall. Apply an ice pack as soon as the injury occurs. Gently massage your bruise and the surrounding but only after 24 hours for blood to be reabsorbed by the body.
Muscle cramp: an involuntary contraction of the muscle that does not relax before exercising. Other factors such as cold weather, rain and moisture can also cause painful contractions of muscle. Warm-up and stretch before working out can help prevent the cramp. You can apply a heating pad to your sore muscles and gently massage to increase blood flow and relax the muscle. If the cramp is present in the calf muscle, straighten your leg and lift your foot upwards, bending it at the ankle, this can help stretch the muscle.
Muscle strain: it can be referred as a muscle tear occurring as a result of overstretching, It is usually painful with a loss of muscle function. Initial treatment is rest the muscle; ice the area for the first 24 hours, the ice will decrease the internal bleeding and lightly wrap the injured area.
Broken bone - Seek emergency medical care immediately, ensure that the wound is clean especially when the fractured bone has pushed through their skin and stop any bleeding
Sport injuries can happen anytime but good preparation can help prevent it such as small meal or some fruits half an hour before workout can keep you stay energized. Be sure to drink enough water before, during and after exercise since dehydration reduces athletic performance and makes your muscles more susceptible to damage. A light physical activity such as walking 2-3 minutes can also help prevent injuries during exercise. 
You may find our specialist here at Orthopedic Institute, Phyathai 2 Hopsital
Phyathai 2 Hospital
International Correspondence Center

Tel: +66-2617-2444 ext 2020 or 2047, Email:

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